Stingless bees (Kiwot)

animated_gif_bees_06  The Stingless bees have scientific names of Tetragonula species (Trigona species). They are natively called the Kiwot, Lukot, Kiyot, Lukutan or Libog.  Either the name Kiwot or Stingless bee will be used in this website.

The Stingless bees are about the size of an ant, yet have all the features of the honeybees except that they do not have a sting. The Philippines is blessed with having many species of this bee and they are (in some regions) often now the key remaining pollinator for agriculture. They typically make their colonies in old bamboo, and are frequently found around bamboo or wooden structures.

apis-and-trigona-bees

Stingless bee

The top picture shows the relative size of a Kiwot and a Ligwan (Apis mellifera).  The bottom picture is a close up of a Kiwot showing that it has a small ‘furry body’ which catches the pollen particles, and also has a pollen basket on its hind legs.  The stingless bees collect pollen for food, and in doing so also pollinate the flowers they visit.  This bee is drinking tiny drops of nectar, and some of this it makes into honey.

Studies of the foraging ranges of stingless bees have found that they can possibly fly over a kilometer from the colony, but also that they will visit much more frequently good pollen sources which are closest to the colony.  Stingless bees are common visitors to flowering plants in the tropics, and they are known to visit the flowers of approximately 90 crop species. (1) They were confirmed to be effective and important pollinators of 9 species. They may make a contribution to the pollination of approximately 60 other species, but there is insufficient information to determine their overall effectiveness or importance. It is often inferred that their small size may mean that they are good pollinators for some particular flowers. (1) (3) (5)

In the Philippines it appears that because of their small size, and also because their colonies are usually quite small (fitting between the nodes of old bamboo for example) they are usually over-looked by most people.  There are also small wasps (often with red or yellow markings) and other insects which Stingless bees are easily confused with and so colonies of bees might be destroyed. Removal of vegetation and replacement of older wooden buildings with concrete buildings gradually contributes to habitat loss and the use of pesticides and herbicides will influence populations.  There are so many small insects in a tropical environment that only specialist entomologists might appreciate their relative population sizes.

Cultivation of Stingless bees & their use in agriculture

Stingless bees can be generally appreciated as valuable pollinators for a range of crops; an interesting example is an 80% increase in crop yield for Pili Nuts (7).  The many species of Stingless bees contribute to the mix of insects that make up the pollination environment.  Therefore it is logical for farmers to encourage more stingless bees by just ensuring that there are lengths of suitable bamboo around the land.

There is an increasing interest in hived colonies of Trigona biroi in particular which show good potential, although this is currently limited to the southern areas of Luzon. An informative guide is given in the UPLB book (2) and also in other publications (6) and in the following videos.

Trigona biroi form large colonies which can be hived and transported to aid pollination of mangos and other crops. The following video shows the splitting of a hived colony.

Gradually hived Trigona biroi colonies are being used in various agricultural regions of the Philippines, as interest grows in their value as pollinators and also as producers of pollen and propolis.  It appears that Trigona biroi colonies will only multiple in numbers if they are provided with particularly suitable ‘hive dimensions’ and encouraged to do so.  This means that colonies are unlikely to spread uncontrolled into the environment without management by ‘beekeepers’.

For the immediate future the native endemic bees are of pre-eminant importance for the national pollination requirements.  This means that whatever Stingless bees are already present need to be appreciated and encouraged, in addition to the native honeybees.

References …

1) The role of stingless bees in crop pollination
by Heard T.A., Annual Review of Entomology 1999: 183-206
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15012371

2) Management of Native Bees – Trigona spp, Apis cerana, Apis dorstata
UPLB Bee Program 2009, 72 pages

3) Best management practices in Agriculture for sustainable use and conservation of pollinators
Sao Paulo University, Brazil – study on stingless bees
http://www.internationalpollinatorsinitiative.org/uploads/6-010.pdf

4) Pollination of Apis mellifera and Trigona biroi on the Productivity of Solanaceous Crops (Philippines)
Jose T. Travero et al
http://iserd.net/ijerd32/32099.pdf

5) Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics
Edited by David W. Roubik
Food and Agriculture Organization: Bulletin 118 Pub: FAO 1995 194 pages
http://www.openisbn.com/free_ebooks/read_88712_Pollination_Of_Cultivated_Plants_In_The_Tropics

6) Stingless: The bees of the future – an article about stingless bees in the Philippines
http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/4741-janmar2013-stingless-bees

7) Bech’s organic Pili Nut farm
http://organicpilinuts.com/stingless-bees/

18 Responses to Stingless bees (Kiwot)

  1. bong tabao says:

    Im from agusan del norte mindanao. I was amazed when i read about stingless honeybee in you website. I want to try culturing but i have no idea, can you help me please. I will wait for your reply. Thank you so much!

  2. renante says:

    Bong tabao,you can contact Apo Mariano Bee Farm.

  3. pio a. rodriguez says:

    Good job! At present i’m developing a small stingless bee farm in guinobatan, albay. May I known what kind of bee plants will i plant in my backyard to sustain food for my bees? thanks!

  4. Jan Jalani says:

    Hi. I’m Jan, from Baguio City. A few months ago, we found an insect colony attached to our bathroom wall near the window. The colony seems to be made out of mud, and the insects living in it look like small black bees. We’re not sure whether they are wasps, bees from the Trigona species, or some other type of insects. They might even be undiscovered species. We are also hesitant about getting rid of them because they might be among the endangered species, and removing them might be harmful to the ecosystem. They don’t seem to be aggressive. They also collect pollen as shown by some of them going back to the colony with pods of what seems to be pollen on their hind legs.

    Basically, I am requesting for help in identifying the above-described insects and some advise on how to relocate them without causing them harm because we are planning on making renovations.

    Please contact me through my email. I would be willing to provide pictures of the insects and their colony. Thank you so much.

    • Julian says:

      Hi Jan. From your description they are probably a species of stingless bee. A good person to identify them is a specialist at the UPLB Bee Program. I will email you his address.

  5. ringo dado says:

    Hi im just starting to learn about bee farming and i have a stingless bee in my house here in sorsogon…. what is the right procedure to produce more stingless bees?

    • Julian says:

      Hi Ringo,
      It depends what species of bee you want to farm.
      To generally encourage stingless bees for pollination etc, this can be done by having old bamboo with small holes in it.
      If you want to farm the pollen and honey then you will need some form of opening box. For T. biroi there is quite a lot of info on this page..
      http://beephilippines.info/stingless-bees/ to start with.

  6. Jenn Santos says:

    Hi ,where can I buy the best stingless honey?I’m in Manila.

    Thanks

  7. sim says:

    If I am not mistaken LIGWAN is Apis cerana. Apis mellifera is not endemic to the Philippines so it must have some other name not necessarily LIGWAN.. Correct me if I am wrong. Thanks.

  8. Ailyn Gay Palconit-Coles says:

    Hello, I have been researching lately about bee culture, and so i have read articles about dr. cleafas cervancia and the stingless bees,..i would like to ask if there is any online tutorials about bee keeping because i`m located in Dolores, Eastern Samar and I have read that most of the bee keepers are situated in Luzon. Please help me start my own colonies of bees soon. Your reply would be much appreciated. God Bless you!

  9. Verch says:

    I am from Quezon City

    Where can I buy these bees?

    • Sol says:

      Hi Verch,
      Try UPLB Bee Program or Milea Bee Farm. They have website and facebook page.

      Hi Julian, Thank you for the tons of information in this website. I hope I can have my stingless bees soon.

  10. nayda milaya says:

    Did you sale.them at sm malls? Or you have stores of kiwot honey at pasay?

    • Julian says:

      SM still is stocking illegal CEM honey – probably trying to get rid of stock.
      I don’t sell any honey I’m afraid. All our honey is used by family and friends.

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